Biosynthesis of AgNPs by extract from waste leaves of Citrullus lanatus sp. (watermelon): characterization, antibacterial and antifungal effects

Main Article Content

Necmettin Aktepe
Ayşe Baran


Antimicrobial, MIC, SEM, TEM, Zeta potential


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are valuable materials with a large number of sectors used. Green synthesis is very important for biomedical applications as they show biocompatible properties. In this study, AgNPs were easily synthesized using the environmentally friendly green synthesis approach using agricultural waste parts of Citrullus lanatus sp. plant grown in Diyarbakır region. Characterization of synthesized AgNPs was made. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was used to evaluate the phytochemicals responsible for effective reduction in the formation of AgNPs. UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis.) Spectra were also used to determine the presence of AgNPs. X-Ray Diffraction Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope, Zeta potential analyzes were performed to define the crystal structures, dimensions and surface charges of AgNPs, respectively. In these data, it was determined that AgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 460 nm, spherical appearance, 21.27 crystal nano size and -30.05 mV zeta potential. Antimicrobial effects of AgNPs on gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) bacteria, gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria, as well as on fungus C. albicans pathogenic microorganisms It was analyzed by specifying the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) by microdilution.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 18 |


1. Baran MF. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Applications of Silver Nanoparticles From artemisia absinthium plant. Biological and Chemical Research 2019; 6: 96–103.
2. Doğaroğlu ZG, Eren A, Baran MF. Effects of ZnO Nanoparticles and Ethylenediamine- N , N ′ - Disuccinic Acid on Seed Germination of Four Different Plants. Global challanges 2019; 1800111: 1–5.
3. Baran, MF., Keskin, C., Atalar, MN., Baran A. Environmentally Friendly Rapid Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles from Artemisia absinthium Plant Extract and Application of Antimicrobial Activities. Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology 2021; 11(1): 365–75.
4. Ismail E, Khenfouch M, Dhlamini M, Dube S, Maaza M. Green palladium and palladium oxide nanoparticles synthesized via Aspalathus linearis natural extract. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2017; 695: 3632–8.
5. Asghar MA, Zahir E, Shahid SM, Khan MN, Asghar MA, Iqbal J, Walker G. Iron, copper and silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis using green and black tea leaves extracts and evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and aflatoxin B1adsorption activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology 2018; 90: 98–107.
6. Morais M, Teixeira AL, Dias F, Machado V, Medeiros R, Prior JAV. Cytotoxic Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Green Methods in Cancer. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2020; 63(23): 14308–35.
7. Wongpreecha J, Polpanich D, Suteewong T, Kaewsaneha C, Tangboriboonrat P. One-pot, large-scale green synthesis of silver nanoparticles-chitosan with enhanced antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity. Carbohydrate Polymers 2018; 199: 641–8.
8. Baran. MF. Synthesis , Characterization and Investigation Of Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles From Cydonia Oblonga Leaf. Applıed Ecology and Envıronmental Research 2019; 17(2): 2583–92.
9. Francis S, Joseph S, Koshy EP, Mathew B. Green synthesis and characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabrata leaf extract and their environmental applications to dye degradation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2017; 24: 17347–17357.
10. Arroyo G V., Madrid AT, Gavilanes AF, Naranjo B, Debut A, Arias MT, Angulo Y. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for application in cosmetics. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 2020; 55(11): 1304–20.
11. Sampaio S, Viana JC. Production of silver nanoparticles by green synthesis using artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) aqueous extract and measurement of their electrical conductivity. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2018; 9(4): 1–10.
12. Baran M. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) with Prunus avium cherry leaf extract and investigation of its antimicrobial effect. Dicle University Journal of Engineering 2019; 10(1): 221–7.
13. Das G, Shin H, Kumar A, Vishnuprasad CN. Photo-mediated optimized synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the extracts of outer shell fibre of Cocos nucifera L . fruit and detection of its antioxidant , cytotoxicity and antibacterial potential. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 2021; 28(1): 980–7.
14. Singh J, Mehta A, Rawat M, Basu S. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using sun dried tulsi leaves and its catalytic application for 4-Nitrophenol reduction. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2018; 6: 1468–74.
15. Patra S, Mukherjee S, Kumar A, Ganguly A, Sreedhar B, Ranjan C. Green synthesis , characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles and their potential application for cancer therapeutics. Materials Science & Engineering C 2015; 53: 298–309.
16. Kobashigawa JM, Robles CA, Martínez Ricci ML, Carmarán CC. Influence of strong bases on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the ligninolytic fungi Trametes trogii. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 2018; 26(7): 1331–7.
17. Ojo, O.A., Oyinloye, B.E., Ojo, A.B., Afolabi, O.B., Peters, O.A., Olaiya, O., Fadaka, A., Jonathan, j., Osunlana O. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles ( AgNPs ) Using Talinum triangulare ( Jacq .) Willd . Leaf Extract and Monitoring Their Antimicrobial Activity. Journal of Bionanoscience 2017; 11: 292–6.
18. Eren, A., Baran MF. Synthesis, Characterization and Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles ( AgNPs ). Turkey Agricultural Research Journal 2019; 6(2): 165–73.
19. Baran MF. Synthesıs , Characterızatıon And Investıgatıon Of Antımıcrobıal Actıvıty Of Sılver Nanopartıcles From Cydonıa oblonga Leaf. 2019; 17(2): 2583–92.
20. Kumar B, Smita K, Cumbal L, Debut A. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Andean blackberry fruit extract. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 2015; 24(1): 45–50.
21. Karunakaran G, Jagathambal M, Venkatesh M, Suresh, Govindan, Suresh Kumar, Evgeny, Kolesnikov, Arkhipov, Dmitry, Alexander, Gusev, Denis K. Hydrangea paniculata fl ower extract-mediated green synthesis of MgNPs and AgNPs for health care applications. Powder Technology 2017; 305: 488–94.
22. Sudhakar C, Selvam K, Govarthanan M. Acorus calamus rhizome extract mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity against human pathogens. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 2015; 13(2): 93–9.
23. Srikar SK, Giri DD, Pal DB, Mishra PK, Upadhyay SN. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles : A Review. Green and Sustainable Chemistry 2016; 6: 34–56.
24. Song JY, Kim BS. Rapid biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extracts. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 2009; 32(1): 79–84.
25. Baran, M. F., Saydut A. Gold nanomaterial synthesis and characterization. Dicle University Journal of Engineering 2019; 10(3): 1033–40.
26. Emmanuel R, Palanisamy S, Chen S, Chelladurai K, Padmavathy S, Saravanan M, Prakash P, Ajmal AM, Al-Hemaid F. Antimicrobial ef fi cacy of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms. Materials Science & Engineering C 2015; 56: 374–9.
27. Kumar, R., Ghoshal, G. Jain A and GM. Rapid Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) Using (Prunus persica) Plants extract: Exploring its Antimicrobial and Catalytic Activities. Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology 2017; 8(4): 1–8.
28. S, Majeed., Mohd, S. A., Gouri K. D., Mohammed, T.A., Anima N. Biochemical synthesis of silver nanoprticles using filamentous fungi Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) and its efficacy against A-549 lung cancer cell line. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines 2016; 14(8): 615–20.
29. Dwivedi AD, Gopal K. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chenopodium album leaf extract. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2010; 369(1–3): 27–33.
30. Some S, Bulut O, Biswas K. Effect of feed supplementation with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Morus indica L. V1 on Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1): 1–13.
31. Ali ZA, Yahya R, Sekaran SD, Puteh R. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using apple extract and its antibacterial properties. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2016; 2016: 1–6.
32. Khan AU, Yuan Q, Khan ZUH, Ahmada A, Khan FU, Tahir K, Shakeel M, Ulla S. An eco-benign synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous extract of Longan fruit peel: Antiproliferative response against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, antioxidant and photocatalytic deprivation of methylene blue. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2018; 183: 367–73.
33. Rouhollah, H., and Marzieh R. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of olive leaf : synthesis and in vitro cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells. International Journal ofBreast Cancer 2014; 2015: 1–7.
34. BARAN A. Eco- friendly, rapid synthesis of silver nanomaterials and their use for biomedical applications. Dicle University Journal of Engineering 2021; 12(2): 329–36.
35. Gopinath V, Priyadarshini S, Loke MF, Arunkumar J, Marsili E, MubarakAli D, Velusamy P, JVadivelu J. Biogenic synthesis, characterization of antibacterial silver nanoparticles and its cell cytotoxicity. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 2017; 10(8): 1107–17.
36. Alkhulaifi MM, Alshehri JH, Alwehaibi MA, Awad MA, Al-Enazi NM, Aldosari NS, Hatamleh AA, Raouf NA. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Citrus limon peels and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic properties. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 2020; 27(12): 3434–41.
37. Thomas B, Vithiya BSM, Prasad TAA, Mohamed SB, Maria Magdalane C, Kaviyarasu K, Maaza M. Antioxidant and Photocatalytic Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2018; 19(5): 2640–8.
38. Premkumar J, Sudhakar T, Dhakal A, Shrestha JB, Krishnakumar S, Balashanmugam P. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from cinnamon against bacterial pathogens. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 2018; 15: 311–6.
39. Butola BS, Gupta A, Roy A. Multifunctional fi nishing of cellulosic fabric via facile , rapid in-situ green synthesis of AgNPs using pomegranate peel extract biomolecules. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy 2019; 12: 100135.
40. Kumar V, Gundampati RK, Singh DK, Bano D, Jagannadham M V., Hasan SH. Photoinduced green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with highly effective antibacterial and hydrogen peroxide sensing properties. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2016; 162: 374–85.
41. Arumai Selvan D, Mahendiran D, Senthil Kumar R, Kalilur Rahiman A. Garlic, green tea and turmeric extracts-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Phytochemical, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity studies. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2018; 180: 243–52.
42. Al-ogaidi I, Salman MI, Mohammad FI, Aguilar Z, Al- Ogaidi M, Hadi YA, Al-Rhman RM. Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized in Green and Black Tea. World Journal of Experimental Biosciences 2017; 5(1): 39–45.
43. Patil MP, Singh RD, Koli PB, Patil KT, Jagdale BS, Tiparee AR, Kim GD. Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Madhuca longifolia flower extract as a green resource. Microbial Pathogenesis 2018; 121: 184–9.
44. Satpathy S, Patra A, Ahirwar B, Delwar Hussain M. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology 2018; 46(S3): S71–85.
45. Ahmed KBA, Raman T, Veerappan A. Future prospects of antibacterial metal nanoparticles as enzyme inhibitor. Materials Science and Engineering C 2016; 68: 939–47.
46. Krishnaraj C, Jagan EG, Rajasekar S, Selvakumar P, Kalaichelvan PT, Mohan N. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 2010; 76(1): 50–6.
47. Rolim WR, Pelegrino MT, de Araújo Lima B, Ferraza LS, Costa FN, Juliana Bernardes S, Rodiguesa T, Brocchic M. Green tea extract mediated biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Characterization, cytotoxicity evaluation and antibacterial activity. Applied Surface Science 2019; 463: 66–74.
48. Remya RR, Rajasree SRR, Aranganathan L, Suman TY. An investigation on cytotoxic effect of bioactive AgNPs synthesized using Cassia fistula flower extract on breast cancer cell MCF-7. Biotechnology Reports 2015; 8: 110–5.
49. Baran MF. Green Synthesıs of Sılver Nanopartıcles (AGNPs) Usıng Pıstacıa Terebınthus Leaf Extract: Antımıcrobıal Effect And Characterızatıon. International Journal on Mathematic, Engineering and Natural Sciences 2018; 5(2): 67–75.