Main Article Content
children eating behavior, parental feeding style, body weight
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of parental feeding styles and children’s eating behavior patterns on both low body weight and obesity. Methods: This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional. The cohort consisted of the preschool and elementary school parents (350 children) of a school in Istanbul/Turkey, 244 parents were participated between 15 April-15 June 2018. Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire were applied. Descriptive statistical methods were used to explain children’s characteristics. Parametric methods were used for variables with normal distribution and non-parametric statistical methods were used for data with abnormal distribution. Spearman’s rho was used to determine the relationship between scores obtained from both questionnaires and BMI. Mann-Whitney U test was used for non-normally distributed variables and t-test or independent variables was used to determine the difference between the mean scores according to gender. Results: The median age of the children was 7.3 (5-10) years. Mean BMI Z-score value was 0.4 ± 1.4. According to BMI Z- score; 4.9% (n: 12) were underweight, 56.6% (n: 138) were normal weight, 26.6% (n: 65) were overweight and 11.9% (n:29) were obese. Underweight children were picky about food consumption. Overweight/obese children were prone to both emotional overeating and under eating and enjoyed eating more. Parental emotional feeding style was associated with emotional overeating, under eating and food selectivity scores and they enjoyed eating more. Conclusion: Applying practical and reliable methods to assess nutritional habits may help to diagnose and prevent malnutrition problems early in childhood. Healthy nutrition behavior could be improved with proper parental feeding styles.
2. Türkiye’de Okul çaği Çocuklarinda (6–10 yaş grubu) Büyümenin İzlenmesi (TOÇBİ) projesi: araştirma raporu [Evaluation of Growth in Turkish Schoolchildren (6–10 age group) project: research report]. Ankara, Ministry of Health and Hacettepe University Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2011
3. Currie C et al., eds. Social determinants of health and well-being among young people: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2009/2010 survey. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2012 (Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 6) (http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/163857/Socialdeterminants- of-health-and-well-being-among-young-people.pdf, accessed 21 May 2013).
4. C. Erem / IJC Metabolic & Endocrine 8 (2015) 38–41).
5. Özkan. S.. Özcebe. H.. Yardım. N.. & Bağcı Bosi. A. T. (2014). Türkiye Çocukluk Çağı (7-8 Yaş) Şişmanlık Araştırması (COSI-TUR). 2013. Sağlık Bakanlığı. Türkiye Halk Sağlığı Kurumu. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. Hacettepe Üniversitesi. Sağlık Bakanlığı Yayın No: 920. Ankara.
6. Özcebe. H.. Bağcı Bosi. T.. Yıldırım. N.. Yardım. M.. & Gögen. S. (2017). Türkiye Çocukluk Çağı (İlkokul 2. Sınıf Öğrencileri) Şişmanlık Araştırması - COSI-TUR 2016” Sağlık Bakanlığı. Halk Sağlığı Genel Müdürlüğü. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü Avrupa Bölge Ofisi. Sağlık Bakanlığı Yayın No: 1080. Ankara.
7. Ventura. A. K.. & Birch. L. L. (2008). Does parenting affect children’s eating and weight status? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 5(15). Doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-15
8. Demir. D.. & Bektas. M. (2017). The effect of childrens’ eating behaviors and parental feeding style on childhood obesity. Eating Behaviors. 26. 137–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2017.03.004
9. Khalsa. A. S.. Woo. J. G.. Kharofa. R. Y.. Geraghty. S. R.. DeWitt. T. G.. & Copeland. K. A. (2019). Parental intuitive eating behaviors and their association with infant feeding styles among low-income families. Eating Behaviors. 32(January). 78–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.01.001
10. LeCroy. M. N.. Siega-Riz. A. M.. Albrecht. S. S.. Ward. D. S.. Cai. J.. Perreira. K. M.. … Stevens. J. (2019). Association of food parenting practice patterns with obesogenic dietary intake in Hispanic/Latino youth: Results from the Hispanic Community Children’s Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth). Appetite. 140(April). 277–287.
11. Vollmer. R. L.. Adamsons. K.. Foster. J. S.. & Mobley. A. R. (2015). Association of fathers’ feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children’s diet quality. eating behavior and body mass index. Appetite. 89. 274–281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.02.021
12. Power. T. G.. Silva Garcia. K.. Beck. A. D.. Goodell. L. S.. Johnson. S. L.. & Hughes. S. O. (2018). Observed and self-reported assessments of caregivers’ feeding styles: Variable- and person-centered approaches for examining relationships with children’s eating behaviors. Appetite. 130(June). 174–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.08.010
13. Yılmaz. N. G.. Renders. C. M.. Nicolaou. M.. & Vrijkotte. T. G. M. (2019). The explanatory role of maternal feeding practices: do they explain ethnic differences in body weight of preadolescents? Appetite. 142. 104354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.104354
14. Zarychta. K.. Kulis. E.. Gan. Y.. Chan. C. K. Y.. Horodyska. K.. & Luszczynska. A. (2019). Why are you eating. mom? Maternal emotional. restrained. and external eating explaining children’s eating styles. Appetite. 141(February). 104335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.104335
15. Hohman. E. E.. Paul. I. M.. Birch. L. L.. Savage. J. S.. & Sciences. P. H. (2018). Healthier Patterns of Dietary Exposures in Infants. 25(1). 185–191. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21705.INSIGHT
16. Gouveia. M. J.. Canavarro. M. C.. & Moreira. H. (2019). How can mindful parenting be related to emotional eating and overeating in childhood and adolescence? The mediating role of parenting stress and parental child-feeding practices. Appetite. 138(September 2018). 102–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.03.021
17. Faith. M. S.. Scanlon. K. S.. Birch. L. L.. Francis. L. A.. & Sherry. B. (2004). Parent-child feeding strategies and their relationships to child eating and weight status. Obesity Research. 12(11). 1711–1722. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.212
18. Russell. C. G.. Haszard. J. J.. Taylor. R. W.. Heath. A. L. M.. Taylor. B.. & Campbell. K. J. (2018). Parental feeding practices associated with children’s eating and weight: What are parents of toddlers and preschool children doing? Appetite. 128(February). 120–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.05.145
19. Wardle. J.. Guthrie. C. A.. Sanderson. S.. & Rapoport. L. (2001). Development of the children’s eating behaviour questionnaire. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. 42(7). 963–970. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00792
20. Yilmaz. R.. Esmeray. H.. & Erkorkmaz. Ü. (2011). Çocuklarda Yeme Davranışı Anketinin Türkçe uyarlama çalışması. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi. 287–294.
21. ozdemir M, Bilgiç P. Food responsiveness and food fussiness which can lead to obesity. MON-P224. Abstracts / Clinical Nutrition 37 (2018) S46-S314).
22. Santos, J.L., Ho-Urriola, J.A., González, A., Smalley, S.V., Domínguez-Vásquez, P.,Cataldo, R., Obregón, A.M., Amador, P., Weisstaub, G., Hodgson, M.I., 2011.Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children. Nutr. J.10 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-10-10).
23. Wardle. J.. Sanderson. S.. Guthrie. C. A.. Rapoport. L.. & Plomin. R. (2002). Parental feeding style and the intergenerational transmission of obesity risk. Obesity Research. 10(6). 453–462. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2002.63
24. Ozcetin. M.. Yilmaz. R.. Erkorkmaz. U.. & Haluk. E. (2010). Reliability and validity study of parental feeding style questionnaire. (June). https://doi.org/10.4274/tpa.45.124
25. Shloim N, Edelson LR, Martin N and Hetherington MM (2015) Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4–12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Front. Psychol. 6:1849. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01849)
26. https://www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/ 04/10/2019. 11:00
27. Sleddens. E. F. C.. Kremers. S. P. J.. De Vries. N. K.. & Thijs. C. (2010). Relationship between parental feeding styles and eating behaviours of Dutch children aged 6-7. Appetite. 54(1). 30-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2009.09.002
28. Birch. L. L. (1999). Development of Food Preferences. Annual Review of Nutrition. 19(1). 41–62. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.19.1.41
29. .Johnson SL. Moding KJ. Bellows LL. Children’s Challenging Eating Behaviors: Picky Eating. Food Neophobia. and Food Selectivity. Edited by: Lumeng JC. Fisher JO. Pediatric Food Preferences and Eating Behaviors. Academic press. Elsevier. 2018 p:73-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811716-3.00004-X
30. Xue. Y.. Lee. E.. Ning. K.. Zheng. Y.. Ma. D.. Gao. H.. … Zhang. Y. (2015). Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study. Appetite. 91. 248–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.04.065
31. Gregory. J. E.. Paxton. S. J.. & Brozovic. A. M. (2010). Pressure to eat and restriction are associated with child eating behaviours and maternal concern about child weight. but not child body mass index. in 2- to 4-year-old children. Appetite. 54(3). 550–556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2010.02.013
32. Webber. L.. Hill. C.. Cooke. L.. Carnell. S.. & Wardle. J. (2010). Associations between child weight and maternal feeding styles are mediated by maternal perceptions and concerns. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64(3). 259–265. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.146
33. Harris. H. A.. Fildes. A.. Mallan. K. M.. & Llewellyn. C. H. (2016). Maternal feeding practices and fussy eating in toddlerhood: A discordant twin analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 13(1). 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0408-4
34. Fisher. J. O.. & Birch. L. L. (1999). Restricting access to palatable foods affects children’s behavioral response. food selection. and intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 69(6). 1264–1272. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/69.6.1264
35. Liem. D. G.. Mars. M.. & De Graaf. C. (2004). Sweet preferences and sugar consumption of 4- and 5-year-old children: Role of parents. Appetite. 43(3). 235–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2004.05.005
36. Rollins. B. Y.. Loken. E.. Savage. J. S.. & Birch. L. L. (2014). Effects of restriction on children’s intake differ by child temperament. food reinforcement. and parent’s chronic use of restriction. Appetite. 73. 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2013.10.005
37. Haycraft. E.. Karasouli. E.. & Meyer. C. (2017). Maternal feeding practices and children’s eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity. Appetite. 116. 395–400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.033
38. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Nüfus Etütleri Enstitüsü (2014). Türkiye Nüfus ve Sağlık Araştırması 2013. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Nüfus Etütleri Enstitüsü. T.C. Kalkınma Bakanlığı ve TÜBİTAK. Ankara. Türkiye.