Main Article Content
adolescents, sports nutrition, nutrition knowledge levels, the General and Sport Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire
Background: Since nutrition is important for success in sports, studies have been conducted for many years to investigate athletes' knowledge about nutrition. Questionnaires and scales developed to determine athletes' levels of nutrition knowledge have drawn attention. This study is the validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the General and Sport Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GeSNK).
Method: This study's participants were 401 male soccer players in the Cyprus Turkish Football Association who were 10-19 years old. The GeSNK has 62 items in 2 subscales. The first subscale, general nutrition knowledge, has 29 items. The second subscale, sports nutrition knowledge, has 33 items. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined using the split-half method, Kuder-Richardson Formulas 20 and 21, and the Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient. Item discriminating power and item discrimination index were also used. The items with an item discrimination index below 0.20 were removed from the test. The content validity of the questionnaire was determined by consulting experts.
Findings: This study found a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.884, indicating that the Turkish version of the GeSNK is reliable.
Conclusions: The Turkish version of the GeSNK can be used to measure athletes' nutrition knowledge levels.
2. Grünthal-Drell M, Veigel M, Sepp H. Young people of the importance of healthy eating and informing. Regional Development of Central and Eastern European Countries. 2015; 2: 276.
3. Adan RA, van der Beek EM, Buitelaar JK, Cryan JF, Hebebrand J, Higgs S. et al. Nutritional psychiatry: Towards improving mental health by what you eat. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019; 29: 1321–1332.
4. Lim SY, Kim EJ, Kim A, Lee HJ, Choi HJ, Yang J. Nutritional factors affecting mental health. Clinical Nutrition Research. 2016;5(3): 143-152.
5. Khan A, Sami UK, Salahuddin K. Nutritional complications and its effects on human health. J Food Sci Nutr. 2018;1(1): 17-20.
6. Tavolacci MP, Grigioni S, Richard L, Meyrignac G, Déchelotte P, Ladner J. Eating disorders and associated health risks among university students. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2015;47(5): 412-420.
7. Sami W, Ansari T, Butt NS, Ab Hamid MR. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review. International Journal of Health Sciences. 2017;11(2): 65.
8. Micali N, Solmi F, Horton NJ, Crosby RD, Eddy KT, Calzo JP. Et al. Adolescent eating disorders predict psychiatric, high-risk behaviors and weight outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2015;54(8): 652-659.
9. Da Luz FQ, Hay P, Touyz S, Sainsbury A. Obesity with comorbid eating disorders: Associated health risks and treatment approaches. Nutrients. 2018;10(7): 829.
10. Skerrett PJ, Willett WC. Essentials of healthy eating: a guide. Journal of midwifery & women's health. 2010;55 (6): 492-501.
11. DeSalvo, K. B., Olson, R., & Casavale, K. O. (2016). Dietary guidelines for Americans. Jama, 315(5), 457-458.
12. González K, Fuentes J, Márquez JL. Physical inactivity, sedentary behavior and chronic diseases. Korean Journal of Family Medicine. 2017;38 (3): 111.
13. WHO. Physical activity for health. 2018.
14. McKinney J, Lithwick DJ, Morrison BN, Nazzari H, Isserow SH, Heilbron B, Krahn AD. The health benefits of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. British Columbia Medical Journal. 2016;58 (3): 131-137.
15. Brown DW, Balluz LS, Heath GW, Moriarty DG, Ford ES, Giles WH, Mokdad AH. Associations between recommended levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life Findings from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Preventive medicine. 2003;37 (5): 520-528.
16. Blair SN, Church TS. The fitness, obesity, and health equation: is physical activity the common denominator?. Jama. 2004;292 (10): 1232-1234.
17. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Boyce WF, Vereecken C, Mulvihill C, Roberts C, et al. Health Behaviour in School‐Aged Children Obesity Working Group. Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school‐aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obesity Reviews. 2005;6(2): 123-132.
18. Dishman RK, Hales DP, Pfeiffer KA, Felton GA, Saunders R, Ward DS. et al. Physical self-concept and self-esteem mediate cross-sectional relations of physical activity and sport participation with depression symptoms among adolescent girls. Health Psychology. 2006;25(3): 396.
19. Miller KE, Hoffman JH. Mental well-being and sport-related identities in college students. Sociology of Sport Journal. 2009;26(2): 335-356.
20. Penedo FJ, Dahn JR. Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 2005;18(2): 189-193.
21. Ströhle A. Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders. Journal of Neural Transmission. 2009;116(6): 777.
22. Allender S, Cowburn G, Foster C. Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: a review of qualitative studies. Health Education Research. 2006; 21 (6): 826-835.
23. Bailey R. Physical education and sport in schools: A review of benefits and outcomes. Journal of School Health. 2006;76 (8): 397-401.
24. Graf C, Koch B, Kretschmann-Kandel E, Falkowski G, Christ H, Coburger S ext al. Correlation between BMI, leisure habits and motor abilities in childhood (CHILT-project). International Journal of Obesity. 2004;28(1): 22-26.
25. Fisher A, Reilly JJ, Kelly LA, Montgomery C, Williamson A, Paton JY, Grant S. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2005;37(4): 684-688.
26. Reilly JJ, Kelly L, Montgomery C, Williamson A, Fisher A, McColl JH, et al. Physical activity to prevent obesity in young children: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2006;333(7577): 1041.
27. Hallal, P. C., Victora, C. G., Azevedo, M. R., & Wells, J. C. (2006). Adolescent physical activity and health. Sports medicine, 36(12), 1019-1030.
28. Ntoumanis N. A self‐determination approach to the understanding of motivation in physical education. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 2001;71(2): 225-242.
29. Kerksick, C. M., Wilborn, C. D., Roberts, M. D., Smith-Ryan, A., Kleiner, S. M., Jäger, R., ... & Greenwood, M. (2018). ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(1), 38.
30. Negro, M., Rucci, S., & Buonocore, D. (2013). Sports Nutrition Sciences: an essential overview. Progress in Nutrition, 15(1), 3-30.
31. Travis-Thomas D, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2016;116(3): 501-528.
32. Beck KL, Thomson JS, Swift RJ, Von Hurst PR. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015; 6, 259.
33. Cotugna N, Vickery CE, McBee S. Sports nutrition for young athletes. The Journal of School Nursing. 2005;21 (6): 323-328.
34. Indoria A, Singh N. Role of nutrition in sports: A review. Indian J Nutr. 2016;3: 147.
35. Close GL, Hamilton DL, Philp A, Burke LM, Morton JP. New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2006; 98: 144-158.
36. Trakman, G. L., Forsyth, A., Devlin, B. L., & Belski, R. (2016). A systematic review of athletes’ and coaches’ nutrition knowledge and reflections on the quality of current nutrition knowledge measures. Nutrients, 8(9), 570.
37. Jones AM, Lamp C, Neelon M, Nicholson Y, Schneider C, Swanson PW, et al. Reliability and validity of nutrition knowledge questionnaire for adults. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2015;47(1): 69-74.
38. Trakman GL, Forsyth A, Hoye R, Belski R. The nutrition for sport knowledge questionnaire (NSKQ): development and validation using classical test theory and Rasch analysis. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2017;14(1): 26.
39. Carbonneau E, Bradette-Laplante M, Lamarche B, Provencher V, Bégin C, Robitaille J, et al. Development and validation of the food liking questionnaire in a French-Canadian population. Nutrients. 2017;9(12): 1337.
40. Blennerhassett C, McNaughton LR, Cronin L, Sparks SA. Development and Implementation of a Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Ultraendurance Athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2019;29 (1): 39-45.
41. Meti R. A study on dietary pattern, food and nutrition knowledge and practices of female table tennis players of South India. Coach. 2018;26: 32-5.
42. Sharma R. Assessment of dietary practices among university male sportsmen. International Journal of Law, Education, Social and Sports Studies (IJLESS). 2015;2(2): 15-19.
43. Vaccaro JA, Frederick F, Davis K, Huffman FG. Nutrition knowledge of amateur bicyclists in South Florida, USA. JPASPEX. 2015;3(1): 23-27.
44. Yerzhanova Y, Sabyrbek Z, Dilmakhanbetov E, Madiyeva G, Milasius K. Evaluation of knowledge and competence of kazakhstani athletes about nutrition. Sport Mont. 2019;17(2): 87-91.
45. Nowak E, Jurie F, Triggs B. Sampling strategies for bag-of-features image classification. In European conference on computer vision (pp. 490-503). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
46. Calella P, Iacullo VM, Valerio G. Validation of a general and sport nutrition knowledge questionnaire in adolescents and young adults: GeSNK. Nutrients. 2017;9 (5): 439.
47. Andreou E, Alexopoulos EC, Lionis C, Varvogli L, Gnardellis C, Chrousos GP, Darviri C. Perceived stress scale: reliability and validity study in Greece. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2011; 8 (8): 3287-3298.
48. Musa A, Shaheen S, Elmardi A, Ahmed A. Item difficulty & item discrimination as quality indicators of physiology MCQ examinations at the Faculty of Medicine Khartoum University. Khartoum Medical Journal. 2018;11(2); 1477-1486.
49. Boopathiraj C, Chellamani K. Analysis of test items on difficulty level and discrimination index in the test for research in education. International Journal of Social Science & İnterdisciplinary Research. 2013;2(2): 189-193.
50. García-Rovés PM, García-Zapico P, Patterson ÁM, Iglesias-Gutiérrez E. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice. Nutrients, 2014;6(7): 2697-2717.
51. Bonnici DC, Greig M, Akubat I, Sparks SA, Bentley D, Mc Naughton LR. Nutrition in Soccer: A Brief Review of the Issues and Solutions. Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise. 2019; 1-10.
52. Diaz I, Godoy-Izquierdo D, Vallejo EN, Molina MJR, Díaz JD. Eating disorders in sports and football: An updated review. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte. 2018;18(2): 43-56.
53. Karpinski CA, Dolins KR, Bachman J. Development and Validation of a 49-Item Sports Nutrition Knowledge Instrument (49-SNKI) for Adult Athletes. Topics in Clinical Nutrition. 2019; 34 (3): 174-185.
54. Putnoky, S., Banu, A. M., Moleriu, L. C., Putnoky, S., Șerban, D. M., Niculescu, M. D., & Șerban, C. L. (2020). Reliability and validity of a General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for adults in a Romanian population. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1-9.
55. Islamoğlu AH, Kenger EB, Ova B, Coşkun BA, Chavush G, Solmaz İ, Güneş, FE. Evaluation of Eating Habits and Nutritional Knowledge Levels of Professional Football Players and Amateur Football Players Trained in Health Sciences. 2019;3(9): 154-160.
56. Abbey EL, Wright CJ, Kirkpatrick CM. Nutrition practices and knowledge among NCAA Division III football players. Journal of The International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2017;14 (1): 13.
57. Judge LW, Kumley RF, Bellar DM, Pike KL, Pierson EE, Weidner T, et al. Hydration and fluid replacement knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors of NCAA division 1 American football players. Journal of strength and conditioning research. 2016;30(11): 2972-2978.
58. Hidalgo R, Elizondo T, Bermudo FMM, Méndez RP, Amorós GB, Padilla EL, et al. Nutritional intake and nutritional status in elite Mexican teenagers soccer players of different ages. Nutricion Hospitalaria. 2015;32(4): 1735-1743.
59. Jonnalagadda SS, Rosenbloom CA, Skinner R. Dietary practices, attitudes, and physiological status of collegiate freshman football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2001;15(4): 507-513.