User-friendly system (a smartphone app) for reporting violent incidents in the Emergency Department: an Italian multicenter study.

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Nicola Ramacciati
Andrea Guazzini
Roberto Caldelli
Laura Rasero


Emergency Department; Emergency Nursing; Mobile Application; Under-reporting; Workplace Violence; Italy



Background: Nurses, particularly emergency nurses, are among the health workers most exposed to workplace violence. Although the reporting systems are increasingly used, the under-reporting phenomenon remains high. Recent studies suggest that the use of easy registration systems could facilitate violence reporting.

Objectives: To verify if a friendly reporting system based on a Mobile-App can facilitate violence episode reporting and reduce the under-reporting phenomenon.

Methods: Twenty emergency departments of five Italian regions of the North and Central Italy participated in an observational, prospective, multicentric, study to verify if a user-friendly reporting system based on a mobile app can facilitate violence episode reporting and reduce the under-reporting phenomenon.

Results: 189 emergency nurses tested for 180 days a new reporting system based on a mobile app. The t-Test for Paired Samples, although with a low mean difference, shows a significant difference in the change in the violence reporting frequency. The correlational tests showed no significant differences in the subgroups divided by demographic and professional characteristics. The usability of the App was considered very high.

Conclusions: The simplification of the reporting system and the preliminary acquisition of data on the characteristics of the ED and each nurse, can save time and facilitate the reporting, but technology alone is not enough to solve the underreporting.


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