Association of sleep duration and quality with depression Among University Students and Faculty

##plugins.themes.themeTen.article.main##

Yousef Alqurashi
Ali Al Qattan
Hassan Al Abbas
Majed Alghamdi
Abdullah Alhamad
Hashem Al Dalooj
Talay Yar
Noor Al Khathlan
Abdullah Alqarni
Ayad Salem

Keywords

sleep deprivation, depression, university, sleep quality

Abstract

Background and aim: Highly competitive and demanding environments in educational institutions led to reduced sleep time for both students and faculty globally. The primary objective of this study was to determine the duration and quality of sleep among students and faculty of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU). The secondary objective was to explore the relationship between depression and sleep duration and quality among students and faculty.


Methods: The study was conducted during 2021 in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. An online survey was disseminated among the university students. The survey form included: demographic data, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness scale (ESS). The responses were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis.


Results: A total of 509 responses satisfying the inclusion criteria were included (323 student and 186 faculty). The average sleep duration for the entire cohort was 6.21 ± 1.32 hours, with 6.5% sleeping less than 5 hours per night. The mean PSQI score was 7.61 ± 3.09, with 73.1% falling in the poor sleep quality category (PSQI score >5). The mean PHQ9 score was 8.86 ± 6.20, with 63.9% falling in the  mild depression category. The mean ESS score was 6.59 ± 4.02, with 11% having a score >10 (corresponding to excessive daytime sleepiness).


Conclusions: A significant proportion of surveyed students and faculty IAU suffer from sleep insufficiency, poor sleep quality, and mild degree of depression. Initiatives to tackle the issue of poor sleep quality and quantity among university students and faculty are required.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 0 |

##submission.citations##

1. Castillo M. The 3 pillars of health. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2015;36(1):1–2.
2. Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, et al. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2015;11(8):931–52.
3. Yin J, Jin X, Shan Z, et al. Relationship of sleep duration with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2017;6(9).
4. Liu X, Uchiyama M, Kim K, et al. Sleep loss and daytime sleepiness in the general adult population of Japan. Psychiatry Research. 2000;93(1):1–11.
5. Broman JE, Lundh LG, Hetta J. Insufficient sleep in the general population. Neurophysiologie Clinique. 1996;26(1):30–9.
6. Hublin C, Kaprio J, Partinen M, Heikkilä K, Koskenvuo M. Daytime sleepiness in an adult, Finnish population. Journal of Internal Medicine. 1996;239(5):417–23.
7. Liu Y, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Cunningham TJ, Lu H, Croft JB. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults — United States, 2014. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2016;65(6):137–41.
8. Ahmed AE, Al-Jahdali F, AlALwan A, et al. Prevalence of sleep duration among Saudi adults. Saudi Medical Journal. 2017;38(3):276–83.
9. Stranges S, Tigbe W, Thorogood M, et al. Sleep Problems : An Emerging Global Epidemic ? Findings From the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE Study Among More Than 40 , 000 Older Adults From 8 Countries Across Africa and Asia. 2012;
10. Medic G, Wille M, Hemels M. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption. Nature and Science of Sleep. 2017 May 19;Volume 9:151–61.
11. Zhai L, Zhang H, Zhang D. Sleep duration and depression among adults: A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Vol. 32, Depression and Anxiety. 2015. p. 664–70.
12. Grandner MA, Kripke DF, Yoon IY, Youngstedt SD. Criterion validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: Investigation in a non-clinical sample. Sleep and Biological Rhythms. 2006;4(2):129–36.
13. Suleiman KH, Yates BC, Berger AM, Pozehl B, Meza J. Translating the pittsburgh sleep quality index into arabic. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2010;32(2):250–68.
14. Kroenke K, Spitzer R, Williams J. The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2001;16:606–613.
15. AlHadi AN, AlAteeq DA, Al-Sharif E, et al. An arabic translation, reliability, and validation of Patient Health Questionnaire in a Saudi sample. Annals of General Psychiatry. 2017;16(1):1–9.
16. Johns MW. Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep. 1992;15(4):376–81.
17. Ahmed AE, Fatani A, Al-Harbi A, et al. Validation of the Arabic version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health. 2014;4(4):297–302.
18. Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, et al. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2015;11(8):931–52.
19. Ahmed AE, Al-Jahdali F, AlALwan A, et al. Prevalence of sleep duration among Saudi adults. Saudi Medical Journal. 2017;38(3):276–83.
20. Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, et al. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep health. 2015 Mar;1(1):40–3.
21. Bahammam A, Alghannam A, Aljaloud K, et al. Joint Consensus Statement of the Saudi Center for Disease Prevention and Control on the Recommended Amount of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep Duration for Healthy Saudis: Background, Methodology, and Discussion. Annals of Thoracic Medicine. 2021 Jul;16.
22. Cai H, Shu XO, Xiang YB, et al. Sleep duration and mortality: A prospective study of 113,138 middle-aged and elderly Chinese men and women. Sleep. 2015;38(4):529–36.
23. Kim Y, Wilkens LR, Schembre SM, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN, Goodman MT. Insufficient and excessive amounts of sleep increase the risk of premature death from cardiovascular and other diseases: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. Preventive Medicine. 2013;57(4):377–85.
24. Svensson T, Saito E, Svensson AK, et al. Association of Sleep Duration With All- and Major-Cause Mortality Among Adults in Japan, China, Singapore, and Korea. JAMA network open. 2021 Sep;4(9):e2122837.
25. Chattu VK, Spence DW, Bahammam AS, Pandi-perumal SR. Insufficient Sleep Syndrome : Is it time to classify it as a major noncommunicable disease ? Sleep Sci. 2018;11(2):56–64.
26. Al-Abri MA. Sleep deprivation and depression: A Bi-Directional association. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 2015;15(1):4–6.
27. Adrien J. Neurobiological bases for the relation between sleep and depression. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2002;6(5):341–51.
28. Watson NF, Harden KP, Buchwald D, et al. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: A gene-environment interaction. Sleep. 2014;37(2):351–8.
29. Winer JR, Deters KD, Kennedy G, et al. Association of Short and Long Sleep Duration With Amyloid-β Burden and Cognition in Aging. JAMA neurology. 2021 Aug;
30. Kim HM, Lee SW. Beneficial effects of appropriate sleep duration on depressive symptoms and perceived stress severity in a healthy population in Korea. Korean Journal of Family Medicine. 2018;39(1):57–61.
31. Aidman E, Jackson SA, Kleitman S. Effects of sleep deprivation on executive functioning, cognitive abilities, metacognitive confidence, and decision making. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 2019;33(2):188–200.
32. Hafner M, Stepanek M, Taylor J, Troxel WM, van Stolk C. Why Sleep Matters-The Economic Costs of Insufficient Sleep: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis. Rand health quarterly. 2017 Jan;6(4):11.
33. Royal Society for Public Health 2016. Waking up to the health benefits of sleep. 2016;
34. Cai H, Shu XO, Xiang YB, et al. Sleep duration and mortality: A prospective study of 113,138 middle-aged and elderly Chinese men and women. Sleep. 2015;38(4):529–36.
35. Kim Y, Wilkens LR, Schembre SM, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN, Goodman MT. Insufficient and excessive amounts of sleep increase the risk of premature death from cardiovascular and other diseases: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. Preventive Medicine. 2013;57(4):377–85.
36. Bellavia A, Åkerstedt T, Bottai M, Wolk A, Orsini N. Sleep Duration and Survival Percentiles Across Categories of Physical Activity. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2014;179(4):484–91.
37. Winer JR, Deters KD, Kennedy G, et al. Association of Short and Long Sleep Duration With Amyloid-β Burden and Cognition in Aging. JAMA neurology. 2021 Aug;
38. Okano K, Kaczmarzyk JR, Dave N, Gabrieli JDE, Grossman JC. Sleep quality, duration, and consistency are associated with better academic performance in college students. npj Science of Learning. 2019;4(1).
39. Attal BA, Bezdan M, Abdulqader A. Quality of Sleep and Its Correlates among Yemeni Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study. Sleep Disorders. 2021;2021:1–10.
40. Chen J, Zhang Y, Zhou X. Effects of gender, medical school class year, and majors on sleep quality in Chinese medical students: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep and Breathing. 2020;24(1):259–66.
41. Svensson T, Saito E, Svensson AK, et al. Association of Sleep Duration With All- and Major-Cause Mortality Among Adults in Japan, China, Singapore, and Korea. JAMA network open. 2021 Sep;4(9):e2122837.
42. Jean-louis G, Grandner MA, Pandi-perumal SR. Sleep Health and Longevity — Considerations for Personalizing Existing Recommendations. 2021;4(9):10–2.