Main Article Content
COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Pandemia, Pestis, Lombardy, Milan
In western democracies, individual behaviour will be crucial to control the spread of COVID-19, as well as government actions  that unfortunately, except China, South Korea and Italy, followed by others, seems to be generally unconvinced and, speculatively, late. Indeed human history has been marked by epidemics/pandemics which have affected, more or less, large geographical areas . Italy, as well as the rest of Europe, has often been affected by these phenomena and, Lombardy, due to his position, was, as today by COVID-19, severely stroked in Italy that is, after China, the second most affected country . This is also linked to the position of Lombardy and its capital, Milan, but this is beyond this brief comment. There are several differences between the past plagues and the actual COVID-19 pandemic and these must be sought in the increased ability to transmit diseases at-distance through the mobility of humans and goods , and in the catastrophic consequences of the breakdown of ecosystems, as told, a few years ago, by David Quammen in the book Spillover .
 Cipolla, Carlo M. (1981). Fighting the Plague in Seventeenth Century Italy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-08340-3.
 Remuzzi A, Remuzzi G. COVID-19 and Italy: what next? The Lancet: Published online March 12, 2019 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30627-9
 Findlater A, Bogoch II. Human Mobility and the Global Spread of Infectious Diseases: A Focus on Air Travel. Trends Parasitol. 2018;34(9):772–783. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2018.07.004
 David Quammen (2012) W.W. Norton & Company, Ltd., New York, New York, USA,
 Lampugnano, Agostino (1634), La pestilenza seguita in Milano l’anno 1630. Ed. Carlo Ferrandi.
Reprinted 2002, Ed. La vita Felice, Milan, Italy. ISBN 88-7799-115-1