Baseline serum vitamin A and vitamin C levels and their association with disease severity in COVID-19 patients: Serum Vitamin A and C levels and COVID-19 severity

Baseline serum vitamin A and vitamin C levels and their association with disease severity in COVID-19 patients

Serum Vitamin A and C levels and COVID-19 severity



Ascorbic acid, COVID-19, Hospital stay, Pulmonary disease, Vitamin A


Aim: We aimed to investigate the association between the serum concentrations of Vitamin A and Vitamin C and the severity of the COVID-19. 

Methods: Fifty-three consecutive PCR (+) COVID-19 patients admitted to a dedicated ward were enrolled in this study. Blood samples for serum Vitamin A and C measurements were drawn from all participants upon admission. All subjects underwent thoracic CT imaging prior to hospitalization. CT severity score (CT-SS) was then calculated for determining the extent of pulmonary involvement. A group of healthy volunteers, in whom COVID-19 was ruled out, were assigned to the control group (n=26). These groups were compared by demographic features and serum vitamin A and C levels. The relationship between serum concentrations of these vitamins and pre-defined outcome measures, CT-SS and length of hospitalization (LOH), was also assessed. 

Results: In COVID-19 patients, serum Vitamin A (ng/ml, 494±96 vs. 698±93; p<0.001) and Vitamin C (ng/ml, 2961 [1991-31718] vs. 3953 [1385-8779]; p=0.007) levels were significantly lower with respect to healthy controls. According to the results of correlation analyses, there was a significant negative association between Vitamin A level and outcome measures (LOH, r=-0.293; p=0.009 and CT-SS, r=-0.289; p=0.010). The negative correlations between Vitamin C level and those measures were even more prominent (LOH, r=-0.478; p<0.001 and CT-SS, r=-0.734: p<0.001).

Conclusion: COVID-19 patients had lower baseline serum Vitamin A and Vitamin C levels as compared to healthy controls. In subjects with COVID-19, Vitamin A and Vitamin C levels were negatively correlated with CT-SS and LOH.


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How to Cite

Baseline serum vitamin A and vitamin C levels and their association with disease severity in COVID-19 patients: Serum Vitamin A and C levels and COVID-19 severity. Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2023 Feb. 13 [cited 2024 Jun. 20];94(1):e2023007. Available from: