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COVID-19, coinfection, epidemiology
Background and aim: Since December 2019, the Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2), has spread from China, becoming a pandemic. Bacterial and fungal co-infections may lead to increase in COVID-19 severity with a decrease in patients survive. The aim of this work was to evaluate bacterial and fungal co-infections in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU in comparison with patients recovered in ICU in pre-COVID-19 era in order to understand whether the pandemic had changed the incidence of overinfections in patients admitted to ICU. In fact, the epidemiological data should guide the choice of empirical therapy. Methods: During pandemic, AOUC Policlinico of Bari organized dedicated ICUs for patient with SARS-CoV-2. Blood cultures, urine, and tracheobronchial aspirate were included in the analysis. Results: Specimens of 1905 patients were analysed in this work. Comparing clinical isolates prevalence by material and COVID-19 vs. non-COVID-19 patients statistically significant differences were detected for A. baumannii complex, Aspergillus fumigatus, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Serratia marcescens isolated from tracheobronchial aspirates; C. albicans from urine samples, A. baumannii complex, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from blood culture. Conclusions: Although the organisms isolated in COVID-19 patients are consistent with those frequently associated with healthcare associated infection, our data suggest a particular prevalence in COVID-19 patients of A. baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Aspergillus spp. in the respiratory tract, C. albicans in urine and A. baumannii, E. faecalis and E. faecium in blood cultures.
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