Main Article Content
Surrogacy, best interest of the minor, legislative intervention, Italian Constitutional Court
The authors have set out to analyze the most recent Italian Constitutional Court jurisprudence (rulings n. 32 and 33/2021) on the issue of surrogacy, by contextualizing the underlying factors and possible implications. The judges argue that their decisions are grounded in the best interest of the minor, whether born from surrogate motherhood or from heterologous fertilization, and believe that a legislative intervention to regulate the issue can no longer be postponed. According to that rationale, the legislator should take into account the difference between surrogacy and heterologous fertilization, and therefore the recognition of intentional parenthood cannot be unconditional, but must be differentiated, depending on the fertilization technique used.
2. Zaami S, Busardò FP. Elective egg freezing: can you really turn back the clock? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015; 19: 3537-8.
3. Zhang W, Xiao X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical outcomes of frozen embryo versus fresh embryo transfer following in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018; 298: 259-272.
4. Hur C, Rehmer J, Flyckt R, Falcone T. Uterine Factor Infertility: A Clinical Review. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2019; 62: 257-70.
5. Zaami S, Montanari Vergallo G, Napoletano S, Signore F, Marinelli E. The issue of delivery room infections in the Italian law. A brief comparative study with English and French jurisprudence. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018; 31: 223-7.
6. Buckett W, Sierra S. The management of unexplained infertility: an evidence-based guideline from the Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society. Reprod Biomed Online 2019; 39: 633-40.
7. Valentini AL, Gui B, Ninivaggi V, et al. The morbidly adherent placenta: when and what association of signs can improve MRI diagnosis? Our experience. Diagn Interv Radiol 2017; 23: 180-6.
8. Zaami S, Marinelli E, di Luca NM, Montanari Vergallo G. Ethical and medico-legal remarks on uterus transplantation: may it solve uterine factor infertility? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017; 21: 5290-6.
9. Tiemann TT, Padma AM, Sehic E, Bäckdahl H, Oltean M, Song MJ, Brännström M, Hellström M. Towards uterus tissue engineering: a comparative study of sheep uterus decellularisation. Mol Hum Reprod 2020; 26: 167-78.
10. Ghahremani-Nasab M, Ghanbari E, Jahanbani Y, Mehdizadeh A, Yousefi M. Premature ovarian failure and tissue engineering. J Cell Physiol 2020; 235: 4217-26.
11. Ngaage LM, Ike S, Elegbede A, et al. The changing paradigm of ethics in uterus transplantation: a systematic review. Transpl Int 2020; 33: 260-69.
12. Del Rio A, Negro F, Piersanti V, Tini A. Uterus transplant update: innovative fertility solutions and the widening horizons of bioengineering. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021; 25: 3405-10.
13. Yoshimasa Y, Maruyama T. Bioengineering of the Uterus. Reprod Sci 2021; 28: 1596-1611.
14. Varone MC, Napoletano G, Negro F. Decellularization and tissue engineering: viable therapeutic prospects for transplant patients and infertility? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021; 25: 6164-6166.
15. Zaami S. Comment on the article by Del Rio et al. Uterus transplant update: innovative fertility solutions and the widening horizons of bioengineering. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021; 25: 3405-3410. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021; 25: 6149-6153.
16. Baker HB, McQuilling JP, King NM. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation. Methods 2016; 99: 135-44.
17. Marinelli S, Nardi V, Varone MC. Uterus transplant and controversial assisted reproductive technologies: can the right to parenthood clash with ethical precepts? Clin Ter 2021; 172: 420-422.
18. Malina A, Błaszkiewicz A, Owczarz U. Psychosocial aspects of infertility and its treatment. Ginekol Pol 2016; 87: 527-31.
19. Montanari Vergallo G, Busardò FP, Zaami S, Marinelli E. The static evolution of the new Italian code of medical ethics. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016; 20: 575-80.
20. Patuzzo S, De Stefano F, Ciliberti R. The Italian Code of Medical Deontology. Historical, ethical and legal issues. Acta Biomed 2018; 89: 157-64.
21. Rallo G, Negro F, Consalvo F, Piersanti V, Marinelli S. Medically assisted procreation in times of COVID-19: what impact on health care system organization and the reproductive rights of couples? Acta Biomed 2021; 92: e2021275.
22. Delbon P, Conti A. Medically Assisted Procreation and Fast-Moving Developments in Science and Law: Ethical and Legal Issues in Heterologous Procreation in Italy. J Public Health Res 2015; 4: 554.
23. Negro F, Marinelli S. Is there anything left of the Italian law governing medically-assisted procreation? Clin Ter 2021; 172: 57-9.
24. Ioverno S, Baiocco R, Lingiardi V, Verrastro V, D'Amore S, Green RJ. Attitudes towards same-sex parenting in Italy: the influence of traditional gender ideology. Cult Health Sex 2019; 21: 188-204.
25. Montanari Vergallo G. A child of two mothers: what about the father? Italian overview. Acta Biomed 2019; 90: 319-325.
26. Klock SC, Lindheim SR. Gestational surrogacy: medical, psychosocial, and legal considerations. Fertil Steril 2020; 113: 889-891.
27. Piersanti V, Consalvo F, Signore F, Del Rio A, Zaami S. Surrogacy and "Procreative Tourism". What Does the Future Hold from the Ethical and Legal Perspectives? Medicina (Kaunas) 2021; 57: 47.
28. Montanari Vergallo G, Marinelli E, di Luca NM, Zaami S. Gamete Donation: Are Children Entitled to Know Their Genetic Origins? A Comparison of Opposing Views. The Italian State of Affairs. Eur J Health Law 2018; 25: 322-37.
29. Greenfeld DA, Seli E. Same-sex reproduction: medical treatment options and psychosocial considerations. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2016; 28: 202-5.
30. Zaami S. Assisted heterologous fertilization and the right of donor conceived children to know their biological origins. Clin Ter 2018; 169: e39-e43.
31. Mackenzie SC, Wickins-Drazilova D, Wickins J. The ethics of fertility treatment for same-sex male couples: Considerations for a modern fertility clinic. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020; 244: 71-75.
32. Zaami S, Del Rio A, Negro F, Varone MC, Marinelli S, Montanari Vergallo G. The March 2021 Italian constitutional court ruling on surrogacy: a prelude to common European legislation for the sake of reproductive health? Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2021 Oct 13:1-6.
33. Crawshaw M, Adams D, Allan S, et al. Disclosure and donor-conceived children. Hum Reprod 2017; 32: 1535-6.
34. Negro F, Varone MC, Del Rio A. Advances in Medically-assisted procreation technologies: can malpractice claims and "reproductive damage" be identified. Clin Ter 2020; 171: e225-e228.
35. Montanari Vergallo G. The transforming family: Heterologous fertilization and the new expressions of family relationships in Italian jurisprudence and European Court of Human Rights rulings. Medical Law International 2019; 19: 282–97.
36. Scheib JE, McCormick E. Adults from donor-conceived families: some good news (from a longitudinal study). Fertil Steril 2020; 114: 764-5.
37. Montanari Vergallo G. The Marco Cappato and Fabiano Antoniani (dj Fabo) Case Paves the Way for New Assisted Suicide Legislation in Italy: An Overview of Statutes from Several European Countries. Eur J Health Law 2019; 26: 221-39.