Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: state of art and update on treatment

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: state of art and update on treatment

Authors

  • Giulia Brindisi Department of Maternal and Child Health and Urological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • Bianca Cinicola Department of Maternal and Child Health and Urological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • Caterina Anania Department of Maternal and Child Health and Urological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • Giovanna De Castro Department of Maternal and Child Health and Urological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • Marcella Nebbioso Department of Sense Organs, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
  • Michele Miraglia del Giudice Department of Woman, Child and Specialized Surgery, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy
  • Amelia Licari Pediatric Clinic, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; Pediatric Unit, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic, and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
  • Carlo Caffarelli Pediatric Clinic, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Unversity of Parma, Parma, Italy
  • Maria De Filippo Pediatric Clinic, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; Pediatric Unit, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic, and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
  • Fabio Cardinale Department of Pediatrics, Giovanni XXIII Pediatric Hospital, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
  • Marzia Duse Department of Maternal and Child Health and Urological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • Anna Maria Zicari Department of Pediatrics, Giovanni XXIII Pediatric Hospital, University of Bari, Bari, Italy

Keywords:

Vernal keratocongiuntivitis, children, therapy, omalizumab, cyclosporine A

Abstract

Vernal keratocongiuntivitis (VKC) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the ocular conjunctiva and cornea. It is a rare and underestimated pathology, whose missed or delayed diagnosis can lead to the development of serious ocular complications. Moreover, despite VKC symptoms are well known, they can overlap and be mistaken with allergic conjunctivitis. In fact, diagnostic criteria and severity grading are not standardized yet. The pathogenesis of VKC is still controversial and it is difficult to identify a single mechanism underlying the chronic ocular inflammation. Different studies hypothesized both allergies and autoimmune diseases and also oxidative stress contribute significantly to the origin of the disease. However, the unclear pathogenesis and the lack of specific disease biomarkers make treatment a challenge. The standard therapy includes antihistamines, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drugs and novel therapies are currently under investigation. However, considering treatment guidelines and recommendations are not well defined yet, therapy should be personalized on the clinical features of the patient. This paper provides an overview of the VKC and updates on the challenges that need to be addressed in the future to improve the management of the patient with this disease and improve his quality of life.

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Published

29-11-2021

How to Cite

1.
Brindisi G, Cinicola B, Anania C, De Castro G, Nebbioso M, Miraglia del Giudice M, et al. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: state of art and update on treatment. Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 29 [cited 2024 Jul. 18];92(S7):e2021517. Available from: https://mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/actabiomedica/article/view/12419