Experiences of healthcare providers from a working week during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak
Main Article Content
Covid-19 outbreak, Qualitative content analysis, Healthcare workers, Perceptions and experiences
Background and aim of the work. The delivery of care to patients with COVID-19 enhanced many psychological issues among healthcare workers (HCWs), exacerbating the risk of burnout and compromising the efficacy and quality of services provided to patients. In this context, the peculiarities regarding professional roles in delivering care to patients with COVID-19 might reflect daily lived experiences that could impact psychological outcomes in specific professional groups. However, daily lived experiences considering different groups of HCWs have been poorly investigated, especially with a longitudinal qualitative study. Accordingly, our study aims firstly to longitudinally explore perceptions and experiences of HCWs about their daily working life during the initial COVID-19 outbreak, highlighting the specific lived experiences of physicians, nurses, radiology technicians, and healthcare assistants.
Methods. A longitudinal qualitative content analysis was conducted to analyse the comments and quotations made on a daily diary lasting seven days by physicians, nurses, radiology technicians, and healthcare assistants during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. According to Elo and Kyngäs recommendation, the data analysis process was developed in three main phases: preparation, organising, and reporting.
Results. Four main generic categories emerged by data analysis: ‘Clinical practice in COVID-19 patients’; ‘The importance of relationship’; ‘Navigating by sight’; and ‘Good always pays off’. Several differences emerged from the sentences of the HCWs, which require further investigation.
Conclusions. Understanding the profession-specific experiences of the involved HCWs in facing the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic is key for boosting reflections, research, and actions to adequately support each professional group
2. Nania T, Dellafiore F, Caruso R, Barello S. Risk and protective factors for psychological distress among Italian university students during the COVID-19 pandemic: The beneficial role of health engagement. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020;2076402094.
3. Barello S, Nania T, Dellafiore F, Graffigna G, Caruso R. ‘Vaccine hesitancy’ among university students in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur J Epidemiol. 2020;35(8):781–3.
4. Rajkumar RP. COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;52:102066.
5. Muller AE, Hafstad EV, William Himmels JP, Smedslund G, Flottorp S, Stensland SØ, et al. The mental health impact of the covid-19 pandemic on healthcare workers, and interventions to help them: A rapid systematic review. medRxiv. 2020;293:113441.
6. Babamiri M, Alipour N, Heidarimoghadam R. Research on reducing burnout in health care workers in critical situations such as the COVID-19 outbreak. Work. 2020;66(2):379–80.
7. Barello S, Caruso R, Palamenghi L, Nania T, Dellafiore F, Bonetti L, et al. Factors associated with emotional exhaustion in healthcare professionals involved in the COVID-19 pandemic: an application of the job demands-resources model. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2021;3 [in press
8. Negro A, Mucci M, Beccaria P, Borghi G, Capocasa T, Cardinali M, et al. Introducing the Video call to facilitate the communication between health care providers and families of patients in the intensive care unit during COVID-19 pandemia. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2020;60:102893.
9. Liu Q, Luo D, Haase JE, Guo Q, Wang XQ, Liu S, et al. The experiences of health-care providers during the COVID-19 crisis in China: a qualitative study. Lancet Glob Heal. 2020;8(6):e790–8.
10. Alizadeh A, Khankeh HR, Barati M, Ahmadi Y, Hadian A, Azizi M. Psychological distress among Iranian health-care providers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry. 2020;20(1):494.
11. Sougou NM, Diouf JB, Diallo AA, Seck I. Risk perception of COVID-19 pandemic among health care providers: qualitative study conducted at the King Baudoin Hospital in Guédiawaye, the first hospital faced with managing a community-acquired COVID-19 case in Senegal. Pan Afr Med J. 2020;37(1):23.
12. Dellafiore F, Caruso R, Conte G, Grugnetti AM, Bellani S, Arrigoni C. Individual-level determinants of interprofessional team collaboration in healthcare. J Interprof Care. 2019;33(6):762–7.
13. Caruso R, Magon A, Dellafiore F, Griffini S, Milani L, Stievano A, et al. Italian version of the Assessment of Interprofessional Team Collaboration Scale II (I-AITCS II): a multiphase study of validity and reliability amongst healthcare providers. Med Lav. 2018 Aug;109(4):316–24.
14. Zhao Y, Xiang C, Wang S, Peng C, Zou Q, Hu J. Radiology department strategies to protect radiologic technologists against COVID19: Experience from Wuhan. Eur J Radiol. 2020;127:108996.
15. Lippi D, Bianucci R, Donell S. Role of doctors in epidemics: historical perspectives and implications for COVID-19. Intern Emerg Med. 2020;15(5):883–4.
16. Choi KR, Skrine Jeffers K, Cynthia Logsdon M. Nursing and the novel coronavirus: Risks and responsibilities in a global outbreak. J Adv Nurs. 2020;76(7):1486–7.
17. Conti C, Fontanesi L, Lanzara R, Rosa I, Porcelli P. Fragile heroes. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health-care workers in Italy. PLoS One. 2020;15(11):e0242538.
18. Delgado D, Quintana FW, Perez G, Liprandi AS, Ponte-Negretti C, Mendoza I, et al. Personal safety during the covid-19 pandemic: Realities and perspectives of healthcare workers in latin America. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(8):2798.
19. Matsuo T, Kobayashi D, Taki F, Sakamoto F, Uehara Y, Mori N, et al. Prevalence of Health Care Worker Burnout During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic in Japan. JAMA Netw open. 2020;3(8):e2017271.
20. Dellafiore F, Arrigoni C, Grugnetti AM, Zaffino G, Calorenne V, Pitella F, et al. Bedside nursing handover and organisational will to achieve personalisation within an Italian Cardiac SurgeryUnit: the nurses’ viewpoint through a qualitative study. Prof Inferm. 2019;72(1):51–9.
21. Elo S, Kääriäinen M, Kanste O, Pölkki T, Utriainen K, Kyngäs H. Qualitative Content Analysis. SAGE Open. 2014;4(1):215824401452263.
22. Hsieh H, Shannon SE. Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005 Nov;15(9):1277–88.
23. Pearson BD, Chinn PL, Jacobs MK. Theory and Nursing: A Systematic Approach. Am J Nurs. 1983;83(10):1504.
24. Elo S, Kyngäs H. The qualitative content analysis process. J Adv Nurs [Internet]. 2008 Apr;62(1):107–15. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x
25. Burnard P. Teaching the analysis of textual data: An experiential approach. Nurse Educ Today. 1996;16(4):278–81.
26. Dey I. Qualitative data analysis: A user-friendly guide for social scientists. 1th ed. Routledge, editor. Taylor & Francis; 2003. pp. 300.
27. Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing Research: Principles and Methods. Philadelphia, PA.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004. pp. 758.
28. Basit T. Manual or electronic? The role of coding in qualitative data analysis. Educ Res. 2003;45(2):143–54.
29. Kyngäs H, Kääriäinen M, Elo S. The Trustworthiness of Content Analysis. In: The Application of Content Analysis in Nursing Science Research. Springer International Publishing; 2020. p. 41–8.
30. Barello S, Falcó-Pegueroles A, Rosa D, Tolotti A, Graffigna G, Bonetti L. The psychosocial impact of flu influenza pandemics on healthcare workers and lessons learnt for the COVID-19 emergency: a rapid review. Int J Public Health. 2020;65(7):1205–16.
31. Manara DF, Giannetta N, Villa G. Violence versus gratitude: Courses of recognition in caring situations. Nurs Philos. 2020;21(3).
32. Caruso R, Miazza D, Berzolari FG, Grugnetti AM, Lichosik D, Arrigoni C. Gender differences among cancer nurses ’ stress perception and coping : an Italian single centre observational study. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2017;39(2):93–9.
33. Rosa D, Terzoni S, Dellafiore F, Destrebecq A. Systematic review of shift work and nurses’ health. Occup Med (Chic Ill). 2019;69(4).
34. Dellafiore F, Nania T, Bruscagin M, Pittella F, Ripamonti SC, Barello S, et al. Studio con metodo misto sequenziale sulle barriere che ostacolano l’implementazione di un nuovo modello organizzativo patient centred care: la prospettiva infermieristica. Prof Inferm. 2019;72(3):171–80.
35. Giannetta N, Villa G, Pennestrì F, Sala R, Mordacci R, Manara DF. Ethical Problems and Moral Distress in Primary Care: A Scoping Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jul 16;18(14):7565. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/14/7565
36. Dellafiore F, Pittella F, Arrigoni C, Baroni I, Conte G, Di Pasquale C, et al. A multi-phase study for the development of a self-efficacy measuring scale for ostomy care nursing management. J Adv Nurs. 2020;76(1):409–19.
37. Dellafiore F, Caruso R, Arrigoni C, Magon A, Baroni I, Alotto G, et al. The development of a self-efficacy scale for nurses to assess the nutritional care of older adults: A multi-phase study. Clin Nutr. 2020;S0261-5614.
38. Dellafiore F, Arrigoni C, Ghizzardi G, Baroni I, Conte G, Turrini F, et al. Development and validation of the pressure ulcer management self-efficacy scale for nurses. J Clin Nurs. 2019;28(17–18):3177–88.
39. Manara DF, Villa G, Moranda D. In search of salience: Phenomenological analysis of moral distress. Nurs Philos. 2014;15(3):171–82.
40. Dellafiore F, Grugnetti AM, Caruso R, Prinzivalli G, Luca M, Grugnetti G, et al. “Nurses Professional Values Scale-Three”: A Validation Study Among Italian Nurses and Nursing Students. J Nurs Meas. 2020;28(3):1–16.
41. Giannetta N, Villa G, Pennestrì F, Sala R, Mordacci R, Manara DF. Instruments to assess moral distress among healthcare workers: A systematic review of measurement properties. Int J Nurs Stud. 2020;111:103767.