Evaluating COVID-19–Environment Fit

Main Article Content

Amene Saghazadeh
Nima Rezaei


Air; COVID-19; Environment; Fitness; Immunity; Pollution


Spring came and went; the COVID-19 pandemic is still an inhabitant of the world, and its tendency to infect individuals is preserved in numbers; so does the case fatality rate continues to increase. While a long list of facts provided by the clinical and medical sciences have remained unable to resolve the problem, recognizing environmental issues concerning COVID-19 resistance and adaptation might be a flash of lighting the nature of COVID-19 and its ideas of fitness. Here, we summarize the current state of the science of environment related to the causative pathogen of COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, as follows. SARS-CoV2 i. survives in water, ii. mainly spreads via the droplet route, and to a lesser extent, from touching contaminated surfaces, iii. transmission via droplets occurs within the interpersonal distance of two meters and beyond, iv. can more easily spread and cause more severe phenotypes of disease under higher-polluted, low-temperature, and low-humidity conditions, v. can spread under high-temperature conditions, and vi. transmission might be moderated by pollen-derived immune responses and lockdown-mediated air quality improvement.    


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 54 | PDF Downloads 35


1. Mullins JA, Lamonte AC, Bresee JS, Anderson LJ. Substantial variability in community respiratory syncytial virus season timing. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2003;22(10):857-63.
2. Bosch A. Human enteric viruses in the water environment: a minireview. Int Microbiol. 1998;1(3):191-6.
3. Brown JD, Goekjian G, Poulson R, Valeika S, Stallknecht DE. Avian influenza virus in water: infectivity is dependent on pH, salinity and temperature. Veterinary microbiology. 2009;136(1-2):20-6.
4. Ahmed W, Angel N, Edson J, Bibby K, Bivins A, O'Brien JW, et al. First confirmed detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater in Australia: A proof of concept for the wastewater surveillance of COVID-19 in the community. Science of The Total Environment. 2020:138764.
5. Jiang X, Luo M, Zou Z, Wang X, Chen C, Qiu J. Asymptomatic SARS‐CoV‐2 infected case with viral detection positive in stool but negative in nasopharyngeal samples lasts for 42 days. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020.
6. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020;382(16):1564-7.
7. Bourouiba L. Turbulent gas clouds and respiratory pathogen emissions: potential implications for reducing transmission of COVID-19. Jama. 2020.
8. Setti L, Passarini F, Gennaro GD, Barbieri P, Perrone MG, Borelli M, et al. Airborne Transmission Route of COVID-19: Why 2 Meters/6 Feet of Inter-Personal Distance Could Not Be Enough. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute; 2020.
9. Hackett T-L, Singhera GK, Shaheen F, Hayden P, Jackson GR, Hegele RG, et al. Intrinsic phenotypic differences of asthmatic epithelium and its inflammatory responses to respiratory syncytial virus and air pollution. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology. 2011;45(5):1090-100.
10. Bashir MF, Ma B, Komal B, Bashir MA, Tan D, Bashir M. Correlation between climate indicators and COVID-19 pandemic in New York, USA. Science of The Total Environment. 2020:138835.
11. Coccia M. Factors determining the diffusion of COVID-19 and suggested strategy to prevent future accelerated viral infectivity similar to COVID. Science of The Total Environment. 2020:138474.
12. Frampton MW, Smeglin AM, Roberts Jr NJ, Finkelstein JN, Morrow PE, Utell MJ. Nitrogen dioxide exposure in vivo and human alveolar macrophage inactivation of influenza virus in vitro. Environmental research. 1989;48(2):179-92.
13. Becker S, Soukup JM. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on respiratory viral infection in airway epithelial cells. Environmental research. 1999;81(2):159-66.
14. Goings SAJ, Kulle TJ, Bascom R, Sauder LR, Green DJ, Hebel JR, et al. Effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on susceptibility to influenza A virus infection in healthy adults. American Review of Respiratory Disease. 1989;139(5):1075-81.
15. Ogen Y. Assessing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels as a contributing factor to the coronavirus (COVID-19) fatality rate. Science of The Total Environment. 2020:138605.
16. Lowen AC, Mubareka S, Steel J, Palese P. Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3(10):e151.
17. Tosepu R, Gunawan J, Effendy DS, Lestari H, Bahar H, Asfian P. Correlation between weather and Covid-19 pandemic in Jakarta, Indonesia. Science of The Total Environment. 2020:138436.
18. Ma Y, Zhao Y, Liu J, He X, Wang B, Fu S, et al. Effects of temperature variation and humidity on the death of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Science of The Total Environment. 2020:138226.
19. Zhu Y, Xie J. Association between ambient temperature and COVID-19 infection in 122 cities from China. Science of The Total Environment. 2020:138201.
20. Hoogeveen MJ. Pollen likely seasonal factor in inhibiting flu-like epidemics. A Dutch study into the inverse relation between pollen counts, hay fever and flu-like incidence 2016–2019. Science of The Total Environment. 2020:138543.
21. Tobías A. Evaluation of the lockdowns for the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Italy and Spain after one month follow up. Science of The Total Environment. 2020:138539.
22. Tobías A, Carnerero C, Reche C, Massagué J, Via M, Minguillón MC, et al. Changes in air quality during the lockdown in Barcelona (Spain) one month into the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Science of the Total Environment. 2020:138540.
23. La Rosa G, Bonadonna L, Lucentini L, Kenmoe S, Suffredini E. Coronavirus in water environments: Occurrence, persistence and concentration methods-A scoping review. Water Research. 2020:115899.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>