Main Article Content
SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Coronavirus, Weather, Air quality, PM
Background and aim:
COVID-19 is a persistent and ongoing global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Non-anthropogenic factors, such as weather conditions and air quality are possible predictors of respiratory diseases, such as COVID-19. Weather conditions may also be a direct cause of biological interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and humans and vary widely between regions. The course of an epidemic is determined by several factors, including demographic and environmental parameters, many of which have an unknown correlation with COVID-19. The goal of this study is to access the influence of ground surface particulate matter and weather parameters on the dissemination of COVID-19 in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Spearman rank correlation was used to investigate the association between new daily COVID-19 cases and weather data.
The current study has found correlations between weather variables and PM particles with new cases of COVID-19.
Conclusions: The correlations observed are highly dependent on the local policies that were in force during the period under study. The interaction between weather conditions and human behaviour may also be an important factor in understanding the relationship between weather and the spread of COVID -19.
2. Guan, W. et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N. Engl. J. Med. 382, 1708–1720 (2020).
3. Huang, C. et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet 395, 497–506 (2020).
4. Sharifian-Dorche, M. et al. Neurological complications of coronavirus infection; a comparative review and lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic. J. Neurol. Sci. 417, 117085 (2020).
5. Wang, D. et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA 323, 1061–1069 (2020).
6. Hamzelou, J. World in lockdown. New Sci. 245, 7 (2020).
7. Johns Hopkins. Track Reported Cases of COVID-19 Coronavirus Resource CenterCOVID-19 Map. (2020).
8. Briz-Redón, Á. & Serrano-Aroca, Á. A spatio-temporal analysis for exploring the effect of temperature on COVID-19 early evolution in Spain. Sci. Total Environ. 728, 138811 (2020).
9. WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)- Weekly Epidemiological Update and Weekly Operational Update. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports/ (2020).
10. Vellingiri, B. et al. COVID-19: A promising cure for the global panic. Sci. Total Environ. 725, 138277 (2020).
11. WHO. Water, sanitation, hygiene and waste management for COVID-19. Technical brief, 19 March 2020. (2020).
12. Dong, E., Du, H. & Gardner, L. An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. Lancet Infect. Dis. 20, 533–534 (2020).
13. Anderson, R. M., Heesterbeek, H., Klinkenberg, D. & Hollingsworth, T. D. How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? The Lancet 395, 931–934 (2020).
14. Tosepu, R. et al. Correlation between weather and Covid-19 pandemic in Jakarta, Indonesia. Sci. Total Environ. 725, 138436 (2020).
15. Evans, J. D. Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences. xxii, 600 (Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co, 1996).
16. Nenna, R. et al. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, weather conditions and air pollution in an Italian urban area: An observational study. Environ. Res. 158, 188–193 (2017).
17. Tan, J. et al. An initial investigation of the association between the SARS outbreak and weather: with the view of the environmental temperature and its variation. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 59, 186–192 (2005).
18. Gupta, S., Raghuwanshi, G. S. & Chanda, A. Effect of weather on COVID-19 spread in the US: A prediction model for India in 2020. Sci. Total Environ. 728, 138860 (2020).
19. Rosario, D. K. A., Mutz, Y. S., Bernardes, P. C. & Conte-Junior, C. A. Relationship between COVID-19 and weather: Case study in a tropical country. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 229, 113587 (2020).
20. Şahin, M. Impact of weather on COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. Sci. Total Environ. 728, 138810 (2020).
21. Ahmadi, M., Sharifi, A., Dorosti, S., Jafarzadeh Ghoushchi, S. & Ghanbari, N. Investigation of effective climatology parameters on COVID-19 outbreak in Iran. Sci. Total Environ. 729, 138705 (2020).
22. Wu, S. L. et al. Substantial underestimation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States. Nat. Commun. 11, 4507 (2020).
23. Ma, Y., Zhou, J., Yang, S., Zhao, Y. & Zheng, X. Assessment for the impact of dust events on measles incidence in western China. Atmos. Environ. 157, 1–9 (2017).
24. Setti, L. et al. The Potential role of Particulate Matter in the Spreading of COVID-19 in Northern Italy: First Evidence-based Research Hypotheses. medRxiv 2020.04.11.20061713 (2020) doi:10.1101/2020.04.11.20061713.
25. Beig, G. et al. COVID-19 and environmental -weather markers: Unfolding baseline levels and veracity of linkages in tropical India. Environ. Res. 191, 110121 (2020).
26. Rohrer, M., Flahault, A. & Stoffel, M. Peaks of Fine Particulate Matter May Modulate the Spreading and Virulence of COVID-19. Earth Syst. Environ. (2020) doi:10.1007/s41748-020-00184-4.
27. Zoran, M. A., Savastru, R. S., Savastru, D. M. & Tautan, M. N. Assessing the relationship between surface levels of PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter impact on COVID-19 in Milan, Italy. Sci. Total Environ. 738, 139825 (2020).
28. Borro, M. et al. Evidence-Based Considerations Exploring Relations between SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and Air Pollution: Involvement of PM2.5-Mediated Up-Regulation of the Viral Receptor ACE-2. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health 17, 5573 (2020).
29. Conticini, E., Frediani, B. & Caro, D. Can atmospheric pollution be considered a co-factor in extremely high level of SARS-CoV-2 lethality in Northern Italy? Environ. Pollut. 261, 114465 (2020).