Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in the state of Qatar: A Population-based Study

Main Article Content

Salama E
husam salama Salama
S Alobaidly


Qatar, preterm, newborn, birth, Pearl study


Objectives: To review the demographics and socioeconomic determinants of preterm birth (PTB) compared to term births among the Qatari population.

Methods: This was a retrospective data analysis of 59,308 births. Data were retrieved from a Population-based Cohort Study. Data were gathered from the PEARL-Peristat maternal newborn registry for 2011, 2012, 2017, and 2018. We compared the preterm births group (delivery < 37 weeks) with the term group (delivery ≥ 37 weeks) regarding socioeconomic factors, including maternal nationality, religion, level of education, mother’s occupation, family income, housing, consanguinity, early childbearing, high-risk pregnancy, smoking, assisted conception, antenatal care, and place of delivery.

Results: The prevalence of preterm birth was 9%. There were more Saudi nations in the preterm group compared to term (33% vs. 28%, p-value < 0.001). There were more preterm births than term births among working mothers (40% vs. 35%), high-risk pregnancies (24% vs. 18%), those that has used assisted conception (18% vs. 3%), those without antenatal care (11% vs. 5.6%), and those delivered in a tertiary women hospital (88.5% vs. 84.5%) (all p-values < 0.001). There were more women living in villas (41% vs. 38%, p = 0.01) and more smokers (0.8% vs. 0.5%, p = 0.030) in the preterm group than in the term group. There were no differences between the two groups regarding religion, level of maternal education, family income, and early childbearing.

Conclusion:In our population, we identified several factors associated with preterm births, the most important is Lack of antenatal care , assisted conception and working mothers.




Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 11 |


1. Liu L, Johnson H, Cousens S, Perin J, Scott S, Lawn J, et al: WHO & UNICEF Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. Lancet. 2012;379:2151–2161.
2. Simone Buitendijk, Jennifer Zeitlin, Marina Cuttini, Jens Langhoff-Roos, Jean Bottu, et al: Indicators of fetal and infant health outcomes. European Journal Of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. 2003;111(1):66–77.
3. Goldenberg R.L, Hauth J.C, Andrews W.W. Mechanisms of disease—intrauterine infection and preterm delivery. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000;342:1500–1507.
4. Gerthe F. Kerkhof, Petra E.Breukhoven, Ralph W.J. Leunissen, Ruben H.Willemsen, Anita C.S.Hokken-Koelega, et al. Does preterm birth influence cardiovascular risk in early adulthood? J Pediatr. 2012; 161(3): 390–396.
5. Romero R, Dey S.K, Fisher S.J: Preterm labor: one syndrome, many causes. Science. 2014; 345: 760–765.
6. CDC. (2015a). Candidiasis [Online]. Available:

7. Organization WH. Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.; 2012.
8. Abhishek Gurung , Johan Wrammert, Avinash K Sunny , Rejina Gurung , et al.: Incidence, risk factors and consequences of preterm birth - findings from a multi-centric observational study for 14 months in Nepal. Arch Public Health. 2020 Jul 17; 78:64.
9. Evelyn M, Suzanne S, Dany Hermann Ngwanou, Daniel Kago Tague, Linda Maguip, David Chelo,et al. Relationship between prematurity, high blood pressure and kidney injury. Journal of Pediatrics and Neonatal Care. Volume 10 Issue 4 – 2020
10. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard MZ, Chou D, Moller AB, Narwal R, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications. Lancet. 2012; 379(9832):2162–2172.
11. Marie E Thoma, Laura B Drew, Ashley H Hirai , Theresa Y Kim , Andrew Fenelon , Edmond D Shenassa . Black-White Disparities in Preterm Birth: Geographic, Social, and Health Determinants. Am J Prev Med 2019 Nov; 57(5): 675-686.
12. Liu L, Oza S, Hogan D, Chu Y, Perin J, Zhu J, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of under-5 mortality in 2000–15: an updated systematic analysis with implications for the sustainable development goals. Lancet. 2016;388(10063):3027–3035.
13. Balaka B, Baeta S, Agbèrè AD, Boko K, Kessie K, Assimadi K, et al. Facteurs De Risque Associés A La Prématurité Au Chu De Lomé, Togo. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2002; 95(4):280–283.
13. Sanou I, Traoré A, Kam KL, Yé D, Kouéta F, Dao L, et al. Morbidité et mortalité néonatales au centre hospitalier universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) de 1993 à 1997. Burkina Médical. 1998;2:18–22.
14. Andreas Chiabi, Evelyn M. Mah, Nicole Mvondo, Seraphin Nguefack, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Karen K. Kamga, et al. Risk factors for preterm births: a cross-sectional analysis of hospital records in a cameroonian health facility. Afr J Reprod Health. 2013;17(4):77–83.
15. March of dimes, P mnch. Save the Children. Who. Born Too Soon: The global action report on preterm birth. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
16. Chawanpaiboon S, Vogel JP, Moller AB, Lumbiganon P, Petzold M, Hogan D, et al. Global, regional, and national estimates of levels of preterm birth in 2014: a systematic review and modelling analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2019; 7(1): e37–e46.
17. Purisch SE, Gyamfi-Bannerman C. Epidemiology of preterm birth. Semin Perinatol. 2017; 41: 387–391.
18. Kildea SV, Gao Y, Rolfe M, Boyle J, Tracy S, Barclay LM. Risk factors for preterm, low birthweight and small for gestational age births among Aboriginal women from remote communities in northern Australia. Women Birth. 2017;30(5): 398–405.
19. Andrés A, Agudelo-Suárez , Elena Ronda-Pérez, Diana Gil-González, Laura I González-Zapata, Enrique Regidor. [Relationship in Spain of the length of the gestation and the birth weight with mother's nationality during the period 2001-2005] [Article in Spanish] Rev Esp Salud Publica. Mar-Apr 2009;83(2):331-7.
20. P Hidalgo-Lopezosa, A Jiménez-Ruz , J M Carmona-Torres , M Hidalgo-Maestre , M A Rodríguez-Borrego , P J López-Soto. Sociodemographic factors associated with preterm birth and low birth weight: A cross-sectional study Women Birth. 2019 Dec;32(6): e538-e543
21. Kc A, Wrammert J, Nelin V, Ewald U, Clark R, Målqvist M. Level of mortality risk for babies born preterm or with a small weight for gestation in a tertiary hospital of Nepal. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):877.
22. Jarde A, Lutsiv O, Park CK, Barrett J, Beyene J, Saito S, et al. Preterm birth prevention in twin pregnancies with progesterone, pessary, or cerclage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2017;124:1163–1173.
23. Purisch SE, DeFranco EA, Muglia LJ, Odibo AO, Stamilio DM. Preterm birth in pregnancies complicated by major congenital malformations: a population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199(3):287.e1–287.e8.
24. Emily E Campbell, Jason Gilliland, Paula D N Dworatzek, Barbra De Vrijer, Debbie Penava, Jamie A Seabrook . Socioeconomic status and adverse birth outcomes: a population-based canadian sample J Biosoc Sci. 2018 Jan; 50(1): 102-113.
25. Lee SJ, Steer V Filippi . Seasonal patterns and preterm birth: a systematic review of the literature and an analysis in a London‐based cohort. BJOG November 2006;113(11):1280-128

26. Kildea SV, Gao Y, Rolfe M, Boyle J, Tracy S, Barclay LM. Risk factors for preterm, low birthweight and small for gestational age births among Aboriginal women from remote communities in northern Australia. Women Birth. 2017;30(5):398–405.
27. Torchin H, Ancel PY, Jarreau PH, Goffinet F. [Epidemiology of preterm birth: Prevalence, recent trends, short- and long-term outcomes]. Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction, 2015, 44(8): 723-731
28. M. Mazharul Islam, Khalid Al-Thihli, Mohamed Abdellatif. Maternal and Neonatal Factors Influencing Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight in Oman: A Hospital Based Study. International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition. 2013;2(4):281-295
30. Haji, Preterm birth: Understanding a mother’s experience. J Bahrain Med Soc. 2018;25(1):1-4.
32. Al-Qurashi FO, Yousef AA, Awary BH. Epidemiological aspects of prematurity in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2016;37(4):414-419.
33. Alabbasi KH, Kruger E, Tennent M. Maternal Variables as Potential Modifiable Risk Indicators of Preterm Labor in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. J Preg Child Health. 2015;2:166.
34. Badriah Ali Alansi, Hytham Bahaeldin Mukhtar, Maher Ahmad Alazizi, Amjad Ahmad Zuiran, Areej Mohammed AL-Atawi, Badriah Abdulrahman Al-Sabah, et al. Risk Factors for Early Preterm Birth at King Salman Armed Force Hospital in 2010. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2017;5(7):1016-1020.
35. Mohammad AlSeaidan, Rihab Al Wotayan, Costas A. Christophi, Massouma Al-Makhseed, Yara Abu Awad, Feiby Nassan, et al. Birth Outcomes in a Prospective Pregnancy-Birth Cohort Study of Environmental Risk Factors in Kuwait: The TRACER Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2016;30(4):408-417.