Main Article Content
ROYAL JELLY, PERFORMANCE, POWER OUTPUT
This study with a placebo-controlled experimental design intends to investigate the effect of Royal Jelly (RJ) on the aerobic and anaerobic power output of sedentary men at a dose of 1000 mg/day. For this purpose, a total of 20 adult sedentary men aged 21 to 23 years were included in this study. The subjects visited the laboratory every day for 15 days between 08:00 and 10:00 to get their portion of royal jelly. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, namely the experimental group (n = 10 individuals, 1000 mg/day Royal Jelly) and the placebo (n = 10 individuals, corn starch mixed with 1000 mg/day water) group and they took royal jelly in glass bottles at the same hour during these visits. In both groups, aerobic and anaerobic power measurements were performed in the laboratory one day before and after the 15-day period. 2×2 mixed factor ANOVA and LSD tests were used to analyze data obtained from the experimental and the placebo group. No significant difference was found in the analysis performed between the pre- and post tests for anaerobic power outputs of the placebo group (p>0.05). Concerning the anaerobic power output of the experimental group, there was a significant difference in the fatigue index value in favor of the post-test (p<0.05). The intergroup analysis of the difference between pre- and post-test in the same parameter showed a significant difference in favor of the experimental group (p<0.05). In the pre-test and post-test analysis of the aerobic power outputs of the placebo group, no significant difference was found (p>0.05). A significant difference was found in the pre- and post-test analysis of the experimental group in favor of the post-test in terms of aerobic power output (p<0.05). The intergroup analysis of the difference between pre- and post-test showed a significant difference in favor of the experimental group in terms of aerobic power outputs (p>0.05). Consequently, it can be argued that royal jelly supplementation taken daily for 15 days at 1000 mg has a positive effect on the aerobic capacity of sedentary men.
Buchfuhrer MJ, Hansen JE, Robinson TE, Sue DY, Wasser KA, Whipp BJ. Optimizing the exercise protocol for car- 342 diopulmonary assessment. J. Appl. Physiol. 1983; 55: 1558-64.
Cumming DC, Brunsting LA, Strich G, Ries AL, Rebar RW. Reproductive hormone increases ın response to acute exercise in man, med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1986; l8:369-73.
Devasagayam TPA, Tilak JC, Boloor KK,Ketaki SS, Saroj SG, Lele RD. Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects. J Assoc Physicians India.2004; 52: 794-804.
Fratini F, Cilia G, Mancini S, Felicioli A. Royal Jelly: An ancient remedy with remarkable antibacterial properties. Microbiological Research,2016; 192: 130-141.
Gawish AM, ElFiky S, Therase M, AbdElraaof A, Khalil W, Mohamed KA. Sperm abnormality toxicity due to cyclosporine A and the ameliorative effect of royal jelly in male rats. The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology. 2016; 76: 60-73.
Meng G, Wang H, Pei Y, Li Y, Wu H, Song Y, Guo Q, Guo H, Fukushima S, Tatefuji T, Wang J, Du H, Su Q, Zhang W, Shen S, Wang X, Dong R, Han P, Okazaki T, Nagatomi R, Wang J, Huang G, Sun Z, Song K,Niu K.Effects of protease-treated royal jelly on muscle strength in elderly nursing home residents: A randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, dose-response study. Scientific Report. 2017; 7: 11416
Guo H, Saiga A, Sato M, Miyazawa I, Shibata M, Takahata Y, Morimatsu F. Royal jelly supplementation improves lipoprotein metabolism in humans. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 2007; 53 (4): 345-348.
Haddadin MS,Haddadin J,BenguiarR. The effect of royal jelly on growth and short-chain fatty acid production of probiotic bacteria and activity of bacterial procarcinogenic enzymes in rat faeces. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2012; 62: 251-258.
Joksimovic A,Stankovic D,Joskimovic I, Molnar S,Joksimovic S. Royal jelly as supplement for young football players. Sport Science, 2011; 1: 62-67.
Joksımovıc A. Stankovıc D, Joskımovıc I, Molnar S,Joksımovıc S. Royal jelly as supplement for young football players. Sport Science 2009; 1: 62-67.
Kaijun N, Hui G,Yinting G, Satoru E, Masanori A, Takashi O, Katsutoshi F, Masakazu I, Kazuhiko Y, Yukitsuka K, Hiroyuki A, Tatsuma O, Ryoichi N. Royal Jelly prevents the progression of sarcopenia in aged mice ın vivo and ın vitro. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences. 2013; 68(12): 1482-1492.
Krylov V, Agafonov A, Krıvtsov N,Lebedev V, Burımıstrova L, Oshevenskı L, Sokolskı S. Theory and agents of apitherapy (in Russian). 2007, Moscow.
KrylovV, Kopylova S, Kuznetsova C, Ovchınnıkov N. The Effects of royal jelly and ubıquınone-10 on heart rate varıabılıty of qualıfıed swımmers durıng physıcal exertıon. Theory and Practice of Sport. 2015; 1: 23-26.
Krylov V, Sokolskıı C. Royal jelly (in Russian). Agroprompoligrafist Krasnodar. 2000; 214
Niu KJ,Guo H,Guo YT,Ebihara S, Asada M,Ohrui T, Furukawa K, Ichinose M,Yanai K, Kudo Y, Arai H, Okazaki T,NagatomiR. Royal Jelly Prevents the Progression of Sarcopenia in Aged Mice In Vivo and In Vitro. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 2013; 68 (12): 1482-1492.
Oded Bar-Or. The wingate anaerobic test an update on methodology, reliability and validity. Sport Medicine. 1987; 4(6): 381-394.
Okamoto I, Taniguchi Y, Kunikata T, Kohno K, Iwaki K, Ikeda M, Kurimoto M. Major royal jelly protein 3 modulates immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Life Sci, 2003; 5: 2029-2045.
Pavero A,Cavıglıa E. Royal jelly and its applications in therapy. ArchivioE.Maragliano di patologia e clinica. 1957; 13(4): 1023-1033.
Ramadan MF, Al-GhamdiA.Bioactive compounds and health-promoting properties of royal jelly: A review. Journal of Functional Foods. 2012; 4:39-52.
Rickenlund A, Carlstrom K, Ekblom B,Brismar TB, Schoultz B, Hirschberg AL. Hyperandrogenicity is an alternative mechanism underlying oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea in female athletes and may improve physical performance. FertilSteril. 2003; 79(4): 947-55.
Shahzad Q, Mehmood MU, Khan H, ulHusna A, Qadeer S, Azam A, Naseer Z, Ahmad E, Safdar M, Ahmad M. Royal jelly supplementation in semen extender enhances post-thaw quality and fertilty of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull sperm. Animal Reproduction Science 2016; 167: 83-88.
Shkenderov S, Ivanov T. PcelniProdukti, The Bee Products (in Bulgarian). Zemizdat (Abstract in Honey bibliography), 1983; 1-238.
Stefan B. Royal jelly, bee brood: composition, health, medicine: A Review. Bee Product Science 2017.
Sver L, Orsolic N, TadicZ, Njari B, Valpotic I, Basic I. A royal jelly as a new potential immunomodulator in rats and mice. Comp ImmunolMicrobiol Infect Dis. 1996; 19: 31- 38.
Takahashi M, Matsuo I, Ohkido M. Contact dermatitis due to honeybee royal jelly. Contact dermatitis. 1983; 9(6): 452.
Takenaka T, Takashi E. General chemical composition of the royal jelly. Bull FacAgrTamagawaUniv, 1980; 20: 71-79.
Taniguchi Y, Kohno K, Inoue S,Koya-Miyata S, Okamoto I, Arai N, Iwaki K, Ikeda M, Kurimoto M. Oral administration of royal jelly inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. International immune pharmacology, 2003; 3 (9): 1313-1324.
Tasaki M, Umemura T, Maeda M, Ishii Y, Okamura T, Inoue T, Kuroiwa Y, Hirose M, Nishikawa A. Safety assessment of ellagic acid, a food additive, in a subchronic toxicity study using F344 rats. Food ChemToxicol. 2008; 46: 1119-1124.
Vıttek J, Jancı J. Vceliamaterskaksieka. Slov. vi. podoh., it. 1968; Bratislava.
Vıttek J, Slomiany B. Testosterone in royal jelly. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 1987; 40: 104-106.