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Type 1 diabetes, Diabetes ketoacidosis, DKA prevention, Parma campaign, Enuresis
Aim: to investigate how much effectiveness of the historical campaign of DKA prevention at T1D diagnosis has survived in Parma’s province where this was launched in Nineties, and how much it has spontaneously spread in the neighboring provinces. Method: children aged 6-14 years with newly diagnosed TID coming from province of Parma (Group 1) and from two other nearby provinces (Group 2) were investigated. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected from medical files of each patient and included age, gender, capillary pH, serum bicarbonate, 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at the time of admittance from 1st January 2012 and 31 December 2016. Results:no DKA condition was globally found in 25/36 patients (69.4%): 16/17 and 9/19 patients belonged to Group 1 and 2 respectively (p=0.002). Mild or moderate DKA was reported in 5.9% patients of Group 1 and in 47.31% (p=0.005) patients from Group 2. Severe DKA was observed in only 1 child from Group 2. Normal 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) serum levels was reported in the 25 patients without DKA at diabetes diagnosis. Duration of hyperglycemia-related symptoms before overt T1D diagnosis was shorter (4.6±2.5 days) in patients with 3HB levels <1 mmol/dl than in those with 3HB levels exceeding 1 mmol/dl (9.6±4.2 days, p< 0.0001). HbA1c values were on overage lower in patients without DKA (9.9±1.2%) than in patients with DKA at diabetes diagnosis (13.60±1.3%; p< 0,001). Conclusion: 1) the campaign for DKA prevention, launched in Nineties and renewed at beginning of Twenties in Parma’s province, continues to be effective in the same province after several years; 2) in the two control provinces despite no information campaign being officially promoted in loco, an unexpected decrease in severe DKA incidence as well a shorter latency before overt T1D diagnosis were observed in the same period.